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Ophthalmologic Tests




Automatic Perimetry (Visual Field Test)

Automated Perimetry (Visual Field Test)

Automated perimetry is a quantitative test of statistic visual field. Patients are required to press a button when they see the light through the equipment during the test, at which the visual field is mapped automatically by computer. As the most common perimetry test in clinical practice, Automated Perimetry provides crucial information to the diagnosis and monitoring progress of glaucoma, optic nerve diseases and neurological disorders.
Contrast Sensitivity Test / Colour Vision Test

Contrast Sensitivity Test

It measures one's ability to distinguish between luminances of different levels, i.e. bright versus dark in case of macular diseases, glaucoma and refractive errors.
Fundus Photography, Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram (F.F.A.) and Indocyano Green Angiogram (I.C.G.)

Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram (FFA) and Indocyano Green Angiogram (ICGA)

These tests are useful for investigation of fundal pathology as well as retinal and choroidal blood circulation, e.g. diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular diseases and other chorioretinal diseases.

Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram (FFA)
The Procedure
  1. Dilating eye drops are administered for pupil dilation before the test.
  2. When the pupils are dilated, a few fundus photos are taken.
  3. Medical staff will insert a small needle into antecubital vein and infuse a water-soluble fluorescein dye intravenously.
  4. As the dye passes through the blood vessels in the retina, a series of photos will be taken rapidly in the beginning and subsequently every 1 minute. The process takes approximately 15 minutes.

Risk and Complication
  1. Allergic reaction (hives and itching).
  2. Nausea, vomit, headache, syncope, and hypotension.
  3. Taste of metal on the tongue.
  4. Vasovagal reaction (feeling of dizziness, cold sweating and discomfort due to vasodilatation).
  5. Extravasation of fluorescein may cause sloughing of the skin, subcutaneous granuloma, superficial phlebitis and arm pain etc.
  6. Extremely rare complications:
    a. Cardiac arrest, basilar artery ischemia, severe shock, convulsions, thrombophlebitis.
    b. Epileptic seizure, inadvertent arterial injection, nerve palsy, pyrexia, etc.
    c. Anaphylaxis including laryngeal edema, and life-threatening bronchospasm.

After the Procedure
  1. Skin and urine may appear slightly more yellowish than usual after the FFA, and this situation will disappear in approximately 2 days. High water intake during this period is recommended.
  2. Near vision will be blurry for 5-8 hours after the pupils are dilated. Avoid driving or operating machinery.
  3. Return to eye clinic or consult eye doctor immediately if you experience sudden onset of eye pain or headache, increased blurring of vision, seeing halos, nausea or vomit, or red and swollen eyes within 1 day.

Follow up Examination
You must return to your doctor for follow up as instructed.

Indocyano Green Angiogram (ICGA)
The Procedure
  1. Dilating eye drops are administered for pupil dilation before the test.
  2. When the pupils are dilated, a few fundus photos are taken.
  3. Medical staff will insert a small needle into antecubital vein and infuse a water-soluble indocyanine green dye intravenously.
  4. As the dye passes through the blood vessels in the retina and choroid, a series of photos will be taken rapidly in the beginning, and subsequently every 3 minutes. This process takes approximately 30 minutes.

Risk and Complication
  1. Allergic reactions include nausea, urticaria, vomit and fever.
  2. Numbness of lips.
  3. Congestion of the eye and lid swelling.
  4. Backache and local skin necrosis.
  5. Vasovagal reaction (feeling of dizziness, cold sweating and discomfort due to vasodilatation).
  6. Serious adverse reaction e.g. anaphylactic shock is extremely rare.

After the Procedure
  1. Near vision will be blurry for 5-8 hours after the pupils are dilated. Avoid driving or operating machinery.
  2. Return to eye clinic or consult eye doctor immediately if you experience sudden onset of eye pain or headache, increased blurring of vision, seeing halos, nausea or vomit, or red and swollen eyes within 1 day.

Follow up Examination
You must return to your doctor for follow up as instructed.
Orbscan, Corneal Topography and Pachymetry

Corneal Topography and Pachymetry

Corneal Topography is used to detect corneal scars and keratoconus for contact lens fitting. Pachymetry provides crucial examination of cornea thickness, LASIK and glaucoma cases.
Specular Microscopy

Specular Microscopy

It is a non-invasive photographic technique for analysis of corneal endothelial layers. It provides crucial information to treatment planning.
Wavefront Aberrometry

Wavefront Aberrometry

As part of major preparation for LASIK, it measures and analyses light reflection through lens and compute refractive errors.
A & B Ultrasound Ophthalmic Scanning

A & B Ultrasound Ophthalmic Scanning

A Scan
A Scan is the use of sound waves to reveal the position of different structures within the eye and orbit in a one-dimensional display. It can be used to measure the length of eyeball, which is an essential figure to calculate the power of the artificial lens to be implanted during cataract surgery.
B Scan
B Scan provides a two-dimensional cross-section of the retinal and orbital structure using advanced ultrasound technology. It is particularly useful in scanning the posterior segment and detecting lesions in case of cataract and ocular haemorrhage.
Optical Coherence Tomography (O.C.T.)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

What Is Optical Coherence Tomography?
A low energy pin-point near-infrared laser beam is projected and scanned across designated structures of the eye ball including the cornea, anterior segment and the back of the eye (retina) in a pre-defined pattern. Sensors will then detect the reflected light, after which the advanced computerised algorithm will analyse the reflected light (low-coherence interferometry) which has been changed in accordance with structural layers of the retina and its nerve fibre layer.

What Is the Merit of OCT Scanning?
In a non-invasive manner, posterior segment OCT system can analyse the layered structures of the retina (which is the photosensitive structure of our eyes, like the film in a camera) with a resolution of less than 10 microns axially and 20 microns transversely, similar to a super-microscope. The anterior segment OCT system can analyse the cornea, iris, anterior segment angles and anterior part of the lens.

The latest high definition OCT systems, can analyse up to 5-7 microns resolution so the layered structures (of the retina, macula), the optic nerve and the anterior segment of the eye can be shown in greater detail.

Clinical Applications
Since its inception, OCT has helped ophthalmologists tremendously in understanding the pathology of many complicated retinal and optic nerve diseases. It can facilitate diagnosis, assessment and progress monitoring of many eye problems before and after treatment, including:
  • Macula diseases: e.g. full thickness/lamellar macular hole, macular detachment, macular schiasis, high myopic macular pathology, age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, macular oedema, macular pucker etc.
  • Retinal problems: e.g. diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy, epiretinal membrane etc. Retinal/ macular oedema secondary to retinovascular disease.
  • Retinal nerve fibre layer pathology: e.g. glaucomatous retinal nerve fibre damage and thinning.
  • Optic nerve pathology: e.g. disc cupping in glaucomatous optic neuropathy, optic disc pit, disc drusens, etc.
  • Assessment of ganglion cell complex thickness at the macula, which can help diagnose glaucoma early.
  • Assessment of the anterior chamber depth and angle, and monitoring of its change (e.g. in narrow angle or occludable angle suspect).
  • Assessment of cornea diameter, cornea thickness, the cornea flap after corneal-refractive surgery (e.g. LASIK) and many other corneal pathologies (e.g. keratoconus).
  • Assessment of the surface of the lens in the eye and also that of intraocular lens after cataract surgery.
Overall, the development of OCT has greatly enhanced the quality care and management of many eye patients in a fast, non-invasive and reproducible way. Please consult your ophthalmologists for further details to assess whether OCT can facilitate the treatment of your eye condition.
Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM)

Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM)

UBM provides an extensive and comprehensive view of deep ocular structure by way of high-energy sonic wave reflection, making it particularly useful for glaucoma screening and pathological studies of lens and cornea.